GLOBULAR STAR CLUSTERS
(CLICK ON THUMBNAIL IMAGE FOR FULL-SIZE VIEW)
M-3 (NGC-5272): Located in the constellation of Canes Venatici (The Hunting Dogs), M-3
is one of the finest globular clusters in the spring sky. Discovered by Messier in 1764, it
has a visual size of approximately 12 minutes of arc, which at its estimated distance of
35,000 light years corresponds to an actual diameter of 220 light years. This cluster con-
tains over 500,000 stars and is estimated to be 8 billion years old!
NOTE: Image on the left is the "FIRST LIGHT" image from Land of Oz Observatory, taken in May,
2006 using the old Orion "StarShoot" color CCD camera. This image is an integration of five 20
second exposures through an 80mm f/7.5 ED Apochromatic Refractor, captured in Maxim DL
Essentials with further post-processing in Photoshop CS.  
RIGHT IMAGE: Taken 4/4/13, thirty
60-second exposures through the C-11 at f/2 using HyperStar and the SXVR-H694C camera.
Captured and combined in Maxim DL 5. Post-processed in PhotoshopCS. Filtered and converted
to JPEG format using NoiseWare. More experience, longer exposure, better data, better image!
M-13 (NGC-6205): Located in the constellation of Hercules, M-13 is the finest globular
cluster in the northern skies. It was discovered in 1714 by Charles Messier. Its visual size is
approximately 17 minutes of arc, which at its estimated distance of 21,000 light years
corresponds to an actual diameter of 160 light years. This spectacular cluster contains over
500,000 stars. The small spiral galaxy NGC-6207 appears below and to the right of M-13.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of July 14, 2012 and is an integration of thirty
50-second exposures through the Celestron 11-inch at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system
and the SXVR-H694C color CCD Astrocamera. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro.
Post-processed using Photoshop CS, Astro-tools, Gradient X-terminator and NoiseWare.
M-92 (NGC-6341): The "other" globular cluster in Hercules. Although overshadowed by the spectacular M-13,
this cluster would be a considered a showpiece were it by itself. It was discovered by J.E.Bode in 1777. M-92 is
only 9 degrees northeast of M-13. This cluster is much more compressed than M-13, having a bright, dense,
blazing core which is equalled by few other globulars.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of July 14, 2012 and is an integration of thirty 50-second
sub-exposures through the Celestron 11 at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and the SXVR-H694C
color CCD astrocamera. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post-processed using Photoshop CS,
levels & curves, color balance, Astro-tools and Gradient XTerminator. Filtered and converted to JPEG format
using NoiseWare.
M-22 (NGC-6656): Located just above the "teapot" in Sagittarius, M-22 is a glorious star cluster, one of
the 5 brightest in the northern sky. In total light, M-22 ranks third among all known globulars, exceeded
only by 47 Tucanae and Omega Centauri. Visually it is almost 20 minutes of arc in diameter. This is one
of the closest globulars, being only about 10,000 light years distant. Its actual diameter is over 90 light
years. It was discovered in 1665 by Abraham Ihle.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of July 31st, 2013, and is an integration of thirty
60-second sub-exposures through the C-11 at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and the
SXVR-H694C color CCD camera. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post-processed
using Photoshop CS, levels & curves, star reduction and Gradient X-terminator and Astro Tools.
M-28 (NGC-6626): Another bright globular star cluster in Sagittarius. It is easily found, being just .8
degrees SE of Lambda Sagittarii. It differs from M-22 in that it is very dense and compact, similar to M-92
in Hercules. M-28 has a visual size of approximately 6 minutes of arc, which at its distance of 19,000 light
years corresponds to an actual diameter of 65 light years.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of 7/14/12 and is an integration of twenty 50-second
exposures through the Celestron 11 at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and the Starlight
Express SXVR-H649C one shot color CCD camera. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro.
Post-processed using Photoshop CS, levels & curves, star reduction and Gradient X-terminator.
Filtered and converted to JPEG format using NoiseWare.
M-15 (NGC-7078): Located in the constellation Pegasus, M-15 was discovered in 1746 by Maraldi. It is
easily located just 4 degrees NW of Epsilon Pegasi. Visually it is about 10 minutes of arc in diameter. At
its estimated distance of 33,000 light years, this would correspond to an actual diameter of 130 light
years. Its total visual magnitude is 6.5.
NOTE: This image was captured on 9/30/16 and is an integration of ten 60-second exposures through
the C-11 at f/2 using HyperStar and the SXVR-H694C camera. Guided, captured & combined using Maxim
DL 5, post-processed using PhotoShop CS, levels, curves, Gradient X-terminator and Astro-Tools.
M-79 (NGC-1904): A small globular cluster located in the constellation of Lepus, the Hare. It was discovered
by Mechain in 1780. It lies about 4 degrees south of Beta Leporis. It is not one of the more brilliant globulars,
and becomes impressive only in larger telescopes. An 8 to 10 inch telescope will begin to resolve the outer
edges into a hazy sprinkling of 14th magnitude stars. Visually, M-79 is approximately 7 minutes of arc in
diameter, which at its estimated distance of 50,000 light years corresponds to an actual diameter of about
110 light years.
NOTE: This image captured on 12/17/13 and is an integration of twenty-five 50-second exposures through
the 11-inch Celestron at f/2 using HyperStar and the SXVR-H694C imager. Captured and combined using
Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post-processed in Photoshop CS, levels, curves, Astro-tools, and Gradient X-terminator.
Noise filtered and converted to JPEG format using NoiseWare.
M-5 (NGC-5904): A wonderful globular cluster in Serpens (the serpent). It lies a little less than
8 degrees SW of Alpha Serpentis, and 20 arcminutes NNW of the double star 5 Serpentis. M-5
is one of the great show objects of the summer sky, ranking with M-13 and M-3 as one of the
three finest globular clusters in the northern sky. M-5 was discovered in 1705 by Gottfrid Kirch.
Visually, M-5 is a large cluster, measuring about 13 arcminutes in diameter. At its calculated
distance of 26,000 light years, this corresponds to an actual diameter of 120 light years.
Spectroscopic studies reveal that M-5 is one of the most ancient globular clusters in our galaxy,
probably about 10 billion years old. The star to the lower left is fifth magnitude star 5 Serpentis.
NOTE: This image captured on July 31, 2013 and is an integration of ten 60-second exposures
through the 11-inch Celestron at f/2 using the HyperStar imaging system and the SXVR-H694C
color imager. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post-processed using Photoshop CS
levels, curves, color balance & saturation, Gradient X-Terminator and Astro-tools.
M-4 (NGC-6121): One of the nearest globular clusters in our galaxy. It is easily found, just 1.3
degrees west of Antares (Alpha Scorpii). It is rather loose in structure and is distinguished by a
prominent "bar" of 11th magnitude stars which bisects its center. This feature is easily seen both
in the above image and visually through any telescope. M-4 lies at a distance of approximately
6200 light years from earth and has an apparent visual size of approximately 12 arcminutes in
diameter.
NOTE: The above image was captured on the evening of July 31, 2014, and is an integration of
thirteen 180 second sub-exposures through the C-11 at f/2 using HyperStar and the Starlight
Express SXVR-H694C 1-shot color imager. Captured and combined in Maxim DL v5.
Post-processed in Photoshop CS, levels, curves, Astro-Tools and Gradient XTerminator.
M-2 (NGC-7089) A fine, bright globular cluster, easily visible in binoculars. Its angular size is
approximately 8 arcminutes, and it shines at magnitude 6. It lies at a distance of 50,000 light
years from earth, and is approximately 150 light years in diameter. This cluster contains over
100,000 stars.
NOTE: This image was captured on 8/23/14, and is an integration of ten 240
second exposures through the 11-inch Celestron at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system
and the Starlight Express SXVR-H694C one-shot color CCD camera. Captured in Maxim DL 5
Pro, with post-processing in Photoshop CS using levels, curves and Gradient XTerminator.
M-54 (NGC-6715): Discovered by Charles Messier in 1778. Located 1-1/2 degrees WSW of Zeta
Sagittarii. This cluster lies at a distance of 50,000 light years from earth and lies in a dense starfield. It
shines at magnitude 8.5 and is approximately 6 arcminutes in diameter.
NOTE: This image captured on the evening of June 22, 2012 and is an integration of thirty 40-second
exposures through the Celestron 11 at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and Starlight Express
SXVR-H694C camera. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post-processed using Photo-
shop CS, levels & curves, star reduction and NoiseWare.
M-53 (NGC-5024): A rich globular cluster in Coma Berenices, located about 1 degree NE of the star Alpha
Comae. Discovered by Bode in 1775. It is 8.7 magnitude and is approximately 10 arcminutes in diameter.
It lies about 60,000 light years from Earth and is about 220 light years in diameter. Visually it is about 8th
magnitude and is about 12 arc minutes in diamerer, a pretty sight in average amateur telescopes.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of April 23rd, 2012 and is an integration of thirty 30
second exposures through the C-11 at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and Starlight Express
SXVR-H694C one-shot color CCD camera. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post-
processed in Photoshop CS2, using levels, curves, StarShrink, and Carboni's AstroTools.
M-55 (NGC-6809): A large, loosely structured globular cluster located in Sagittarius. Discovered in 1752
by Lacaille. Visually it is approximately 15 arcminutes in diameter, which, at its calculated distance of
approximately 20,000 light years is about 80 light years.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of September 10, 2012 and is an integration of fifteen
50-second exposures through the 11-inch Celestron at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and
Starlight Express SXVR-H694C color CCD imager. Captured and combined in Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post
processed in Photoshop CS, levels & curves, Gradient X-terminator and NoiseWare.
M-56 (NGC-6779): Located in the southeast portion of the constellation of Lyra midway between Beta and
Gamma Lyrae. Discovered by Charles Messier in 1779. It is very uniform in structure with just a slight
central concentration. Visually it is approximately 5 arcminutes in diameter, which at its estimated distance
of 46,000 light years corresponds to about 60 light years.
NOTE: This image captured on August 17, 2012, and is an integration of twenty 50-second exposures
through the 11-inch Celestron at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and Starlight Express SXVR-H694C
imager. Captured and combined in Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post processed in Photoshop CS using levels & curves,
Carboni's Astro-Tools, Gradient X-terminator and NoiseWare.
NGC-6522 (left) and NGC-6528 (right): A pair of small globular clusters located in western Sagittarius about 5
degrees north-northeast of the Lagoon Nebula (M-8), and just north of third magnitude star Gamma Sagittarii (in
the lower left-hand corner of the frame). NGC-6522 is about 3 arcminutes in diameter and is 10.5 magnitude.
NGC-6528 is smaller and dimmer at 2 arcminutes diameter and 11th magnitude. Also seen in this image are
several of the prominent dark nebulae which are located in this region.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of September 10, 2012 and is an integration of fifteen 50-second
exposures through the 11-inch Celestron at f/2 using the HyperStar 3 imaging system and Starlight Express
SXVR-H694C color CCD imager. Captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro. Post-processed using Photoshop
CS, levels, curves, color balance, Astro-Tools and Gradient XTerminator. Noise filtered and converted to JPEG
format using NoiseWare.
M-62 (NGC-6266): Located southeast of Antares (A Scorpii) just over the border into Ophiuchus. This is
a relatively bright (Mag. 6.5) and fairly large (15 arcmin. diameter) globular cluster. It was discovered by
Messier in 1771.  It lies about 22,000 light years from earth and is 100 light years in diameter            
NOTE: This image captured on the evening of July 31, 2014 and is an integration of ten
180-second exposures through the C-11 at f/2 using HyperStar and the SXVR-H694C camera.
Captured and combined in Maxim DL v5. Post processed in Photoshop CS, levels, curves, Astro-Tools
and Gradient XTerminator.
M-14 (NGC-6402): A fine globular cluster in the constellation of Ophiuchus, located about half a
degree north of Delta Ophiuchi.  It is fairly bright, 7.6 magnitude, and its apparent size is about
11 arcminutes. At its distance from Earth of 30,000 light years, this corresponds to an actual
diameter of about 100 light years. The brightest stars in M-14 are about 14th magnitude. This
globular also is unusual in that it contains over 70 variable stars.
NOTE: This image was captured on the evening of July 31, 2014, and is an integration of ten
180-second exposures through the Celestron 11-inch telescope at f/2, using the HyperStar
imaging system and the Starlight Express SXVR-H694C 1-shot color imager. The images were
captured and combined using Maxim DL Pro v. 5.2. Post-processing was done in Photoshop CS,
using levels, curves, and Gradient XTerminator.
M-19 (NGC-6273): A bright globular cluster in Ophiuchus, discovered by Messier in 1764. M-64 is one
of the most oblate of all the globular clusters. This elongated shape is mainly caused by the extinction
of light from the eastern edge of the clustr by intervening dust and gas. This cluster lies 28,000 light
years from earth and is 140 light years in diameter.
NOTE: This image captured on the evening of July 31, 2014, and is an integration of ten 180-second
exposures through the Celestron 11-inch telescope at f/2 using the HyperStar system and the Starlight
Express SXVR-H694C 1-shot color imager. Images captured and combined using Maxim DL 5 Pro.
Post-processed using PhotoshopCS, levels, curves, and Gradient XTerminator.
M-53 (NGC-5024) and NGC-5053: This pair of globular clusters, located in Canes Venatici, offer a
distinct contrast in size and brightness. M-53 (lower left) is brighter and much more concentrated
than NGC-5053 (upper right) which is structured much more loosely and contains stars that are much
dimmer. This monochrome image was captured with the Celestron 11 at f/2 using the HyperStar
imaging system and the Starlight Express SXVR-H694C with the pixels binned 2X2 for greater
sensitivity   A 30-mnute exposure, guided, captured and combined using Maxim DL5. Post-processed
using PhotoShop CS2, levels, curves, and Astro-Tools.